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1688 год и все такое: права собственности, Славная революция и подъем британского капитализма

https://doi.org/10.32609/0042-8736-2017-11-63-92

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Аннотация

Славная революция 1688 г. помогла обеспечить защиту прав собственности в Англии и стимулировать подъем капитализма. Д. Аджемоглу, С. Джонсон и Дж. Робинсон затем писали, что для английского Средневековья была характерна недостаточная защита прав собственности для землевладельцев, торговцев и первых промышленников, а укрепление прав собственности в конце XVII в. ускорило процесс финансовой и торговой экспансии. Однако такие рассуждения имеют недостатки. Права собственности в Англии были относительно защищены с XIII в. Главной проблемой была не защищенность прав, а их феодальный характер. Феодальные права на землю включали широко распространенные «майораты» и «строгие урегулирования». Революция 1688 г. не оказала заметного прямого влияния на состояние прав собственности. Но если учесть эту критику, то возникает вопрос о том, какие изменения содействовали росту капитализма. Приемлемый ответ можно найти, если обратиться к анализу финансовой и административной революций, которые произошли после 1688 г. в контексте необходимости воевать и усиления глобальных позиций Великобритании. Руководимая более влиятельным парламентом, полномочия которого росли, новая финансовая система стимулировала реформы прав собственности на землю, расширение состава имущества, используемого в качестве залога, и увеличение свободно торгуемых долгов. Именно эта новая финансовая система сделала возможной Промышленную революцию.

Об авторе

Д. М. Ходжсон
Университет Хартфордшира
Великобритания
проф. Университета Хартфордшира (Великобритания)


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Для цитирования:


Ходжсон Д.М. 1688 год и все такое: права собственности, Славная революция и подъем британского капитализма. Вопросы экономики. 2017;(11):63-92. https://doi.org/10.32609/0042-8736-2017-11-63-92

For citation:


Hodgson G.M. 1688 and all that: Property rights, the Glorious Revolution and the rise of British capitalism. Voprosy Ekonomiki. 2017;(11):63-92. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.32609/0042-8736-2017-11-63-92

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