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Политика поддержки инноваций: набор инструментов

https://doi.org/10.32609/0042-8736-2019-10-5-31

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Аннотация

Экономическая теория предполагает, что в рыночной экономике инновации, скорее всего, будут недооцениваться, поскольку знания представляют собой общественное благо. Эмпирические данные по США и другим развитым странам подтверждают эту идею. Проанализированы преимущества и недостатки различных политических инструментов для продвижения инноваций и предоставлен базовый «инструментарий», описывающий наиболее эффективную политику в соответствии с этими данными. В краткосрочной перспективе налоговые льготы на НИОКР и прямое государственное финансирование представляются наиболее продуктивными, однако в долгосрочной перспективе более эффективно увеличивать предложение человеческого капитала, например, смягчать иммиграционные правила или расширять прием в университеты в рамках специальностей STEM.

Об авторах

Н. Блум
Стэнфордский университет (Стэнфорд, Калифорния); Национальное бюро экономических исследований (Кембридж, Массачусетс)
Соединённые Штаты Америки

Николас Блум, профессор экономики Стэнфордского университета



Й. Ван Реенен
Массачусетский технологический институт (Кембридж, Массачусетс); Национальное бюро экономических исследований (Кембридж, Массачусетс)
Соединённые Штаты Америки

Йон Ван Реенен, профессор менеджмента и экономики Массачусетского технологического института



Х. Уильямс
Стэнфордский университет (Стэнфорд, Калифорния); Национальное бюро экономических исследований (Кембридж, Массачусетс)
Соединённые Штаты Америки

Хайди Уильямс, профессор экономики Стэнфордского университета



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Для цитирования:


Блум Н., Ван Реенен Й., Уильямс Х. Политика поддержки инноваций: набор инструментов. Вопросы экономики. 2019;(10):5-31. https://doi.org/10.32609/0042-8736-2019-10-5-31

For citation:


Bloom N., Van Reenen J., Williams H. A toolkit of policies to promote innovation. Voprosy Ekonomiki. 2019;(10):5-31. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.32609/0042-8736-2019-10-5-31

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