Preview

Вопросы экономики

Расширенный поиск
Доступ открыт Открытый доступ  Доступ закрыт Только для подписчиков

Неравенство: как не примитивизировать проблему

https://doi.org/10.32609/0042-8736-2017-4-117-139

Полный текст:

Аннотация

В работе представлен обзор основных тем, обсуждаемых в новейшей экономической литературе по проблеме неравенства. Среди них: сложно- сти измерения; динамика уровней неравенства; возможные драйверы его увеличения; соотношение между межстрановым и внутристрановым нера- венством; долговременные тренды его изменения (гипотеза С. Кузнеца); механизмы связи между неравенством и экономическим ростом; предпо- лагаемая стагнация реальной заработной платы на протяжении последних десятилетий; возросший разрыв в оплате труда топ-менеджеров и рядо- вых работников; увеличение доли доходов от капитала в ВВП; связь неравенства с рыночной конкуренцией; нормативные аспекты. Сделан вывод, что с нормативной точки зрения неравенство представляет собой псевдопроблему, хотя его рост может быть симптомом каких-то иных, реальных экономических и социальных проблем.

Об авторе

Р. И. Капелюшников
ИМЭМО РАН; Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики» (НИУ ВШЭ)
Россия
член-корр. РАН, д. э. н., главный научный сотрудник ИМЭМО РАН; замдиректора Центра трудовых исследований (ЦТИ) Национального исследовательского университета «Высшая школа экономики» (Москва)


Список литературы

1. Джомо К. C., Попов В. В. (2016). Долгосрочные тенденции в распределении до- ходов // Журнал Новой экономической ассоциации. № 3. С. 146-160

2. Капелюшников Р. (2009). Производительность труда и стоимость рабочей силы: как рождаются статистические иллюзии // Вопросы экономики. № 4. С. 59-79

3. Капелюшников Р. (2014). Производительность и оплата труда: немного простой арифметики // Вопросы экономики. № 3. С. 36-61.

4. Любимов И. Л. (2016). Неравенство и экономический рост: теоретические аспекты зависимости. М.: РАНХиГС

5. Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 3-28. Alesina A., Rodrik D. (1994). Distributive politics and economic growth. Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 109, No. 2, pp. 65-90.

6. Alvaredo F. (2011). Picture this: Inequality over the past century. Finance and Development, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 28-29.

7. Anderson R. (2007). How well do wages follow productivity growth? Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Economic Synopses, No. 7, p. 1.

8. Armenter R. (2015). A bit of a miracle no more: The decline of the labor share. Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia Research Department Business Review, No. 3, pp. 1-9.

9. Attanasio O. P., Pistaferri L. (2016). Consumption inequality. Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 3-28.

10. Atkinson A. B. (2015). Inequality: What can be done? Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

11. Atkinson A. B., Morelli S. (2014). Chartbook of economic inequality. ECINEQ Working Papers, No. 2014-324.

12. Auerbach A. J., Kotlikoff L. J., Koehler D. (2016). U.S. inequality, fiscal progressivity, and work disincentives: An intragenerational accounting. NBER Working Paper, No. 22032.

13. Benaabdelaali W., Hanchane S., Kamal A. (2012). A new data set of educational inequality in the world, 1950-2010: Gini index of education by age group. In: J. A. Bishop, R. Salas (eds.). Inequality, mobility and segregation: Essays in honor of Jacques Silber (Research on Economic Inequality, Vol. 20). Howard House: Emerald Group Publishing, pp. 337-366.

14. Berman Y., Ben-Jacob E., Shapira Y. (2016). The dynamics of wealth inequality and the effect of income distribution. PLoS ONE, Vol. 11, No. 4, e0154196.

15. Björklund A. (1993). A comparison of actual distributions of actual and lifetime incomes: Sweden 1951-1989. Review of Income and Wealth, Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 377-386.

16. Bonnet O., Bono P.-H., Chapelle G. C., Wasmer É. (2014). Capital is not back: A comment on Thomas Piketty’s “Capital in the 21st Century”. Sciences Po Economics Discussion Papers, No. 2014-07.

17. Bowlus A., Robin J. M. (2012). An international comparison of lifetime inequality: How continental Europe resembles North America. Journal of the European Economic Association, Vol. 10, No. 6, pp. 1236-1262.

18. Brueckner M., Lederman D. (2015). Effects of income inequality on aggregate output policy. World Bank Research Working Paper, No. 7317.

19. Budría S., Díaz-Giménez J., Quadrini V., Ríos-Rull J. V. (2002). New facts on the dis- tributions of earnings, income and wealth in the US. Federal Reserve Bank Minneapolis Quarterly Review, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 2-35.

20. CBO (2014). Distribution of household income and federal taxes, 2011. Washington, DC: Congressional Budget Office.

21. Cochrane J. (2014). Why and how we care about inequality [WWW page]. http:// johnhcochrane.blogspot.ru/2014/09/why-and-how-we-care-about-inequality. html

22. de Rugy V. (2016). Contrary to White House claim, compensation has been in line with productivity [WWW page]. http://mercatus.org/publication/contrary-white- house-claim-compensation-has-been-line-productivity

23. Feldstein M. (2008). Did wages reflect growth in productivity? Journal of Policy Modeling, Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 591-594.

24. Friedman M. (1939). Discussion of “Income capitalization as a method of estimating the distribution of wealth by size groups”, by Charles Stuart. In: Conference on research in national income and wealth, Studies in income and wealth. Cambridge, MA: NBER, Vol. 3, pp. 129-141.

25. Gimpelson V., Triesman D. (2015). Misperceiving inequality. NBER Working Paper, No. 21174.

26. Goldin С., Katz L. F. (2008). The race between education and technology. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

27. Halter D., Oechslin M., Zweimüller J. (2014). Inequality and growth: The neglected time dimension. Journal of Economic Growth, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 81-104.

28. Jones C. I. (2015). Pareto and Piketty: The macroeconomics of top income and wealth inequality. Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 29-46.

29. Kaplan S. N., Rauh J. (2013). It’s the market: The broad-based rise in the return to top talent. Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 35-56.

30. Katz L. F., Murphy K. M. (1992). Changes in relative wages 1963-1987: Supply and demand factors. Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 107, No. 1, pp. 35-78.

31. Keister L. A. (2000). Wealth in America: Trends in wealth inequality. New York: Cambridge University Press.

32. Kitov I., Kitov O. (2013) The dynamics of personal income distribution and inequality in the United States. MPRA Paper, No. 48649. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/ 48649/

33. Kopczuk W. (2015). What do we know about the evolution of top wealth shares in the United States? Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 47-66.

34. Krueger D., Perri F. (2006). Does income inequality lead to consumption inequality? Evidence and theory. Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 73, No. 1, pp. 163-193.

35. Kuznets S. (1955). Economic growth and income inequality. American Economic Review, Vol. 45, No. 1, pp. 1-28.

36. McCloskey D. N. (2014). Measured, unmeasured, mismeasured, and unjustified pes- simism: A review essay of Thomas Piketty’s Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 73-115.

37. Magness P. W., Murphy R. P. (2015). Challenging the empirical contribution of Thomas Piketty’s Capital in the 21st Century. Journal of Private Enterprise, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 1-34.

38. Milanovic B. (2012). Global income inequality by the numbers: In history and now. An overview. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, No. 6259.

39. Milanovic B. (2016) Global inequality: A new approach for the age of globalization. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

40. Perry M. J. (2016). New BLS data show that for all ‘chief executives,’ the ‘average CEO-to-average worker pay ratio’ is less than 5-to-1 [WWW page]. http://www. aei.org/publication/new-bls-data-show-that-for-all-chief-executives-the-average-ceo-to-average-worker-pay-ratio-is-less-than-5-to-1/

41. Piketty T. (2014). Capital in the twentyfirst century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

42. Piketty T., Saez E. (2010). Income and wage inequality in the United States, 1913-2002. In: A. B. Atkinson, T. Piketty (eds.). Top incomes: A global perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

43. Rognile M. (2015). Deciphering the fall and rise in the net capital share: Accumulation or scarcity? Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Spring, pp. 1-54. Rosen S. (1981). The economics of superstars. American Economic Review, Vol. 71, No. 5, pp. 845-858.

44. Saez E., Zucman G. (2015). Wealth inequality in the United States since 1913: Evidence from capitalized income tax data. NBER Working Paper, No. 20625.

45. Zucman G. (2016). Global inequality and growth: The interplay between inequality and growth. Unpublished manuscript. http://gabriel-zucman.eu/files/econ133/2016/ Econ133_Lecture8.pdf


Для цитирования:


Капелюшников Р.И. Неравенство: как не примитивизировать проблему. Вопросы экономики. 2017;(4):117-139. https://doi.org/10.32609/0042-8736-2017-4-117-139

For citation:


Kapeliushnikov R. Inequality: How not to primitivize the problem. Voprosy Ekonomiki. 2017;(4):117-139. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.32609/0042-8736-2017-4-117-139

Просмотров: 189


ISSN 0042-8736 (Print)